'Hosni Mubarak (1928-) was the President of Egypt from 14th October 1981 to 11th February 2011. The former Vice-President assumed office following the assassination of President Anwar Sadat. He had previously been an officer in the Egyptian Air Force, gaining status for the much improved performance in the 1973 Arab-Israeli War.
An authoritarian, he kept fairly tight control over extremist groups, and upheld the 1979 peace agreement with Israel.
There had been reports he had been in poor health, and had no clear successor. Despite calls for him to stay in power, Mubarak pledged not to seek a sixth term of office in 2011, following widespread civil unrest at the prospect of the continuation of his rule of some 30 years. After repeatedly pledging to stay in office until his final term expired, Mubarak stepped down early following weeks of protest against his rule.
- "Egypt after Hosni Mubarak: Put a proper procedure in place", The Economist, 23 July 2009
- BBC News: 'Egypt crisis: President Hosni Mubarak resigns as leader'. 11th February 2011.