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- Almagest : The most influential book on astronomy from 150 AD to about 1600 AD.
- Alpha Andromedae : Alpha Andromedae, or Alpheratz, is a bright star in the constellation Andromeda
- Astrology : Any belief that correlates the patterns and positions of celestial bodies to human personalities, human affairs, or terrestrial events.
- Constellation : An officially recognised formation of stars, such as the Big Dipper or Orion.
- Cosmology : A branch of astronomy and of metaphysics committed to the study of the universe as a whole, of the contents, structure, and evolution of the universe from the beginning of time to the future.
- Geography : Study of the surface of the Earth and the activities of humanity upon it.
- History of astronomy : Chronology of the development and history of astronomy.
- History of geography : Chronology of the development and history of geography.
- History of scientific method : Development and elaboration of rules for scientific reasoning and investigation.
- Johannes Kepler : (1571-1630) German astronomer best known for his three laws of planetary motion.
- Jupiter (planet) : The fifth planet from the Sun in our solar system; named after the Roman god of the same name; largest planet in our solar system.
- Marcello Malpighi : (1628-1694), Italian scientist who creatively exploited the early microscope as Galileo did the early telescope, discoverer of the capillaries, and regarded as the founder of microscopic anatomy (histology).
- Medicine : The study of health and disease of the human body.
- Mumbai : The capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra, and is the most populous city in India; formerly known as Bombay.
- Nicolaus Copernicus : (1473–1543) Astronomer, founder of the heliocentric system.
- Positivist calendar : Alternative calendar proposed by Auguste Comte in 1849, with each day and month celebrating a different person.
- Scarborough Castle : Ruined stone castle on the east coast of Yorkshire, England, begun in mid-twelfth century.
- Scientific method : The concept of systematic inquiry based on hypotheses and their testing in light of empirical evidence.
- Star : A massive, luminous ball of plasma that is held together by gravity.
- Tiberius Claudius Cogidubnus : British king of the first century AD, loyal to Rome.
- Trigonometric function : Function of an angle expressed as the ratio of two of the sides of a right triangle that contains that angle; the sine, cosine, tangent, cotangent, secant, and cosecant.
- Ulaid : A people of prehistoric and early historical Ireland, who gave their name to the province of Ulster.
- Ulster : The northernmost of the four provinces of Ireland.